Customary IHL Database

Customary international law is made up of rules that come from “a general practice accepted as law” and that exist independent of treaty law. Customary international humanitarian law (IHL) is of crucial importance in today’s armed conflicts because it fills gaps left by treaty law in both international and non-international conflicts and so strengthens the protection offered to victims.

The customary IHL Database is the updated version of the Study on customary international humanitarian law conducted by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and originally published by Cambridge University Press.

The Database is divided in two parts:

1. Rules

This part presents an analysis of existing rules of customary IHL. While comprehensive, the Study does not purport to be an exhaustive assessment of all rules in this area of law.

This part of the Study is also available in ArabicChineseFrenchRussian and Spanish.

A summary of the Study and the list of rules is available in many other languages.

2. Practice

This part contains the underlying practice for the rules analysed in Part 1. Rules. It is updated on a regular basis. The most recent update in December 2017 integrates national practice for two countries . The most recently added practice is marked in green.

Source materials are gathered by a network of ICRC delegations and Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies around the world.

They are incorporated into the Database by a joint British Red Cross-ICRC research team based at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge.

International materials updated in August 2016 were incorporated into the Database by a research team at the International Criminal and Humanitarian Law Clinic, Laval University.

Source: International Committee of the Red Cross, 2017



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National Dialogue Handbook


Grounded in a series of contemporary case studies, this Handbook aims to contribute to the nascent debate about National Dialogue, bringing together insights and expertise from diverse regions. In doing so, it seeks to present systematic reflections and offer practical advice. The Handbook thus supports conflict stake-holders and practitioners (both local and international) to grapple with the challenges they face and to pursue the most appropriate design for their particular context. Moving beyond simplistic approaches, the Handbook also seeks to provide an overview of National Dialogue processes, drawing from the expertise and practices of scholars and practitioners. The purpose of the Handbook is twofold: (1) to offer an analytical framework of National Dialogues and (2) to serve as a practical tool for those engaged in the implementation of these processes. This Handbook thus offers a unique practice-oriented resource guide for comprehensively designing, implementing and supporting National Dialogues.

Source: National Dialogue Handbook: A Guide for Practioners. Berlin: Berghof Foundation, 2017.

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The Meaning of Land in Myanmar


Today many inhabitants of rural communities in Myanmar live under threat of losing their lands in a battle for resources spurred by ethnic conflict, exploitative land laws, and powerful economic actors. The existence of a legal right to the land does not translate into that right being respected in practice, and people across the country are now working to protect their right to the land.

Source: Jennifer Franco and et al. The Meaning of Land in Myanmar. Amsterdam:  Transitional Institute, 2016.

See also: Jennifer Franco and et al. The Challenge of Democratic and Inclusive Land Policymaking in Myanmar. Amsterdam: Transitional Institute, 2015.

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State of Power 2017


This sixth annual State of Power report examines the cultural processes that are used by corporations, military and privileged elites to make their power seem ‘natural’ and ‘irreversible’. It also explores how social movements can harness creativity, art and cultural forces to resist and to build lasting social and ecological transformation.

Source: Nick Buxton and Deborah Eade (eds.). State of Power 2017. Amsterdam: Transitional Institute, 2017.

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World Wealth Levels 2016


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January 16, 2017 · 9:54 am

Eight Billionaires “As Rich As World’s Poorest Half”


Eight men own the same wealth as the 3.6 billion people who make up the poorest half of humanity, according to Oxfam’s report “An Economy for the 99 Percent”.  The report shows that as growth benefits the richest, the rest of society – especially the poorest – suffers.

The very design of our economies and the principles of our economics have taken us to this extreme, unsustainable and unjust point. Our economy must stop excessively rewarding those at the top and start working for all people. Accountable and visionary governments, businesses that work in the interests of workers and producers, a valued environment, women’s rights and a strong system of fair taxation, are central to this more human economy.

Source: Deborah Hardoon. An Economy for the 99 Percent. Oxford: Oxfam, 2017.



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Tools for Conflict Analysis


Source: Irenees

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